Protective role of Bacopa monnieri against Rotenone- induced Parkinson’s disease in PC 12 cell lines


  • Gunduluru swathi SRI VENKATESWARA UNIVERSITY-TIRUPATI-517502 India Department of Zoology, Ranked first among all 13 departmets under college of sciences
  • Chintha Venkata Ramaiah SRI VENKATESWARA UNIVERSITY-TIRUPATI-517502 Department of Zoology, Ranked first among all 13 departmets under college of sciences
  • Wudayagiri Rajendra SRI VENKATESWARA UNIVERSITY-TIRUPATI-517502 Department of Zoology, Ranked first among all 13 departmets under college of sciences


Parkinson’s disease (PD), Bacopa monnieri (BM), PC 12 Cell lines


Parkinson disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra, decreased striatal dopamine (DA) levels, and consequent extrapyramidal motor dysfunction. PC 12 cells originate from pheochromocytoma cells of rat adrenal medulla and share many common characteristics with substantia nigra cells. They produce DA, several growth factors, such as nerve growth factor, fibroblast growth factor and transforming growth factor, and express DA receptors. Hence, these cells are being used to study the alterations in dopaminergic neurons, in vitro, that occur during Parkinson’s disease. Since long term usage of antiparkinsonian drugs cause high incidence of pharmacoresistence and untoward side effects, attention has been paid in recent years to screen bioactive compounds from natural medicinal plants for treatment of several neurological disorders including Parkinson’s disease. Keeping in view of relative importance of natural medicinal plants, the present study is mainly focused to characterize the anti-parkinsonian effect of Bacopa monnieri (BM), an Indian herb which is being extensively used in Ayurveda treatments related to neurological complications. The present study was designed to assess the neurotoxicity of rotenone on DA-producing PC12 cells and explore the possible antiparkinsonian effect of BM in comparing with Levodopa (LD) (Reference control). The survivability studies of PC 12 cell-lines were analysed using MTT assay. Pre-treatment with BM extract significantly ameliorated morphological damage, cell viability, and apoptosis of PC12 cells exposed to RT. Hence BM extract can be effectively used in the treatment of PD and other related neurological disorders.


Das A, Shanker G, Nath C, Pal R, Singh S, Singh HK. A comparative study in rodents of standardized extracts of Bacopa monniera and Ginkgo biloba anticholinesterase and cognitive enhancing activities. Pharmacol Biochem Behav.2002; 73:893-900.

Samii A, Nutt JG, Ransom BR. Parkinson’s disease. Lancet .2004; 363:1783–1793

Russo A, Angelo AI, Borrelli F, Renis M, Vanella A. Free Radical scavenging capacity and protective effect of Bacopa monniera L. on DNA damage. Phytother. Res. 2003; 17. 870–875.

Bhattacharya SK, Bhattacharya A, Kumar A, Ghosal S. Antioxidant activity of Bacopa monniera in rat frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus. J Phytotherapy Res. 2000; 14(3): 174-9.

Borut Poljsak, Dušan Šuput, and Irina Milisav.. Achieving the Balance between ROS and Antioxidants: When to Use the Synthetic Antioxidants, Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2013;vol. 2013, Article ID 956792, 11 pages, 2 doi:10.1155/2013/956792

Bove J, Prou D, Perier C, Przedborski S. Toxin-induced models of Parkinson's disease. Neuro Rx. 2005; 2: 484-94.

Clarke CE, Moore AP. Parkinson’s disease. Am Fam Physician 75:1045–1048.

Dar A and Channa S; (1999). Calcium antagonistic activity of Bacopa monniera on vascular and intestinal smooth muscles of rabbit and guinea-pig. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007; 66:167-174.

Harish GC, Venkateshappa RB, Mythri SK, Dubey K, Mishra N,Singh S, Vali MM, Bharath. Bioconjugates of curcumin display improved protection against glutathione depletion mediated oxidative stress in a dopaminergic neuronal cell line: implications for Parkinson’s disease. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry.2010; 18:2631-2638.

Greene LA, Tischler AS. Establishment of a noradrenergic clonal line of rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cells which respond to nerve growth factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1976; 73:2424–2428.

Swathi G, Rajendra W. Protective role of Bacopa monnieri on induced Parkinson’s disease with particular reference to Catecholamine system. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2014; Vol 6, Issue 7, 2014.379-382.

Liu HQ, Zhu XZ, Weng EQ. Intracellular dopamine oxidation mediates rotenone-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. Acta Pharmacol. Sin. 2005; 26 (2005), pp. 17–26.

Obeso JA, Olanow CW, Nutt JG. Levodopa motor complications in Parkinson’s disease. Trends Neurosci. 2000;23(10 Suppl): S2-7

Mosmann T. Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. J Immunol Methods.1983; 16; 65(1-2):55–63.

Rascol O. Disease-modification trials in Parkinsondisease: target populations, endpoints and study design. Neurology. 2009; 72:S51–S58.

Offen D, Ziv 1, Sternin FI, Melamed E, Hochman A. Prevention of dopamine induced cell death by thiol antioxidants: possible implications for treatment of Parkinson's disease. Exp Neurol. 1996;14 1 (1 ): 32-9.

Pavlica S, Gebhardt RProtective effects of flavonoids and two metabolites against oxidative stress in neuronal PC12 cells. Life Sci.2010; 86: 79–86. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2009.10.017 [PubMed]

Betarbet R, Sherer TB, MacKenzie G, Garcia-Osuna M, Panov AV, Greenamyre JT. Chronic systemic pesticide exposure reproduces features of Parkinson’s disease. Nat Neurosci. 20003;1301–1306.

Sairam K, Dorababu M, Goel RK, Bhattacharya SK. Antidepressant activity of standardized extract of Bacopa monniera in experimental models of depression in rats. Phytomedicine 2002; 9:207-211.

Sairam K, Rao C V, Babu MD, Goel RK.Prophylactic and curative effects of Bacopa monniera in gastric ulcer models. J Phytomedicine. 2001; 8:423-30.

Sampath D, Jackson GR, Werrback-Perez K, Perez-Polo IR. Effect of nerve growth factor on glutathione peroxidase and catalase in PC 12 cells. J Neurochem. 1994;62: 2476-2479.

Schapira AH, Hartley A, Cleeter MW, Cooper JM. Free radicals and mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. Biochem Soc Trans.1993;21(2):367-70.Review. PubMed PMID: 8359498.

Sheng GQ, Pu XP, Lei L, Tu PF, Li CL. Tubuloside B from Cistanche salsa rescues the PC12 neuronal cells from 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion-induced apoptosis and oxidative stress. Planta Med. 2002; 68: 966–970. 10.1055/s-2002-35667.

Swarnkar S, Singh S, Mathur R, Patro IK, Nath C. A study tocorrelate rotenone induced biochemical changes and cerebraldamage in brain areas with neuromuscular coordination in rats.Toxicology.2010; 272(1–3):17–22.

Talpade DJ, Greene JG, Higgins DS, Greenamyre JT. In vivo labeling of mitochondrial complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) in rat brain using [(3)H] dihydrorotenone. J Neurochem. 2000; 75:2611-21.




How to Cite

Gunduluru swathi, Chintha Venkata Ramaiah, Wudayagiri Rajendra. Protective role of Bacopa monnieri against Rotenone- induced Parkinson’s disease in PC 12 cell lines. ijp [Internet]. 2017 Jun. 30 [cited 2023 Nov. 30];9(2):219-22. Available from:



Original Research Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)