Insulin sensitizing potential of fractions isolated from X. molluccensis and X. granatum


  • Renuka Munshi Associate Professor & In-charge, Dept of Clinical Pharmacology, TNMC & BYL Nair Ch. Hospital
  • Samidha Joshi Dept. of Clinical Pharmacology, TN Medical College and BYL Nair Charitable Hospital, Mumbai Central, Mumbai, India
  • T Narendra Medicinal and Process Chemistry Division, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India.
  • SPS Bhandari Medicinal and Process Chemistry Division, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India.


X. molluccensis, X. granatum, glucose uptake, fructose fed model, 3T3 L1 adipocytes


The present study was designed to elucidate the anti-hyperglycemic action of two fractions isolated from marine plants i.e., CDR267F018 from X. molluccensis and CDR134F194 from X. granatum in insulin resistant conditions using in vitro and in vivo models. The glucose uptake was studied using in vitro model of 3T3 L1 adipocyte and L-6 skeletal muscle cell line. The effect of fractions was also studied in dexamthazaone induced insulin resistant conditions in 3T3L1 adipocyte model. The in vivo model of insulin resistance was developed using a high fructose diet. Parameters assessed were weight, fasting blood glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides and liver glycogen content. Pioglitazone was used as a positive control. CDR267F018 and CDR134F194 demonstrated stimulation of glucose uptake in L-6 skeletal muscle cells in a dose dependent manner. Both the fractions per se significantly stimulated the basal 2-deoxyglucose uptake in 3T3L1 model. A stimulation of 2-deoxyglucose uptake was also observed in insulin resistant cells. The effect shown by these drugs was comparable to Pioglitazone, a known insulin sensitizer. Administration of the fractions CDR267F018 and CDR134F194 demonstrated a dose dependent decrease in sugar and insulin levels with maximum effect at the highest dose tested. These fractions also decreased the total cholesterol levels although an increase in triglycerides levels was observed at the higher doses. The maximum decrease in triglycerides was seen with lower dose. CDR267F018 and CDR134F194 have a potential role in ameliorating insulin resistant conditions as seen in the 3T3L1 adipocyte, skeletal muscle and fructose fed model.


Cheng D. Prevalence, predisposition and prevention of type II diabetes. Nutr Metabolism. 2005; 2: 29:1-12.

Moller DE. New drug targets for type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Nature. 2001 Dec 13; 414(6865):821-7.

Tomlinson PB. The Botany of Mangroves. In: Ashton PS, Hubbell SP, Janzen DH, Raven PH, Tomlison PB, editors. 1st ed. New York: Cambridge University Press; 1986. p. 274.

Kiritikar KR, Basu BD. Indian Medicinal Plants. 2nd ed. Allahabad, India: International Book Distributor; 1987.p. 558.

Lakshmi V, Gupta P. An overview of the genus Xylocarpus. Nat. Prod. Res. 2008; 22(14): 1197- 1224.

Wan-Omar A, Ibrahim J, Sulaiman O, Hashim Y. Screening of local plants for antifilarial activity against adult worm and microfilariae of Brugia pahangi. J Trop Forest Products 1997; 3: 216–19.

Zaridah MZ, Idid SZ, Wan-Omar A, Khozirah S. In vitro antifilarial effects of three plant species against adult worms of subperiodic Brugia malayi. J Ethnopharmacol 2001; 78: 79–84.

Uddin SJ, Shilpi JA, Delazar A, Nahar L, Sarker SD. Free radical scavenging activity of some Bangladeshi plant extracts. Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine 2004; 4 (3): 187–95.

Okorie DA, Taylor DAH. Limonoids for Xylocarpus granatum. Journal of the Chemical Society 1970 [Section] C: Organic 2: 211–13.

Alvi KA, Crews P, Aalbersberg B, Prasad R. Limonoids from the Fijian medicinal plant dabi (Xylocarpus). Tetrahedron 1991; 47(43): 8943–48.

Kokpol U, Chavasiri W, Tip-pyang S, Veerachato G, Zhao F, Simpson J, Weavers RT. A limonoid from Xylocarpus granatum. Phytochemistry 1996; 41 (3): 903–05.

Wu J, Zhang S, Xiao Q, Li Q, Huang J, Xiao Z, Long L. Xyloccensin M and N, two new B,D-seco limonoids from Xylocarpus granatum. Zeitschrift fuer Naturforschung B:Chem Sci 2003; 58 (12): 1216–19

Hummel KP, Dickie MM, Coleman, DL. Diabetes, a new Mutation in the Mouse..Science 1996; 153, 1127-1128.

Luc Tappy & Kim Anne LE. Metabolic Effects of Fructose and the Worldwide Increase in Obesity, Physiol Rev 2002; 90, 23–46.

Saltiel AR, Kahn CR. Insulin signaling and the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Nature 2001; 414:799-806.

Van der Vies, J .Two methods for the determination of glycogen in liver, Biochem J 1954; 57, 410–416.

Sharon SE, Nancy LK, Judith SS, Karen T, Peter JH. Fructose, Weight gain, and the insulin resistance syndrome. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2002; 76 : 911-922.

Reaven GM. Role of insulin resistance in human disease. Diabetes 1988; 37(12):1595-1607




How to Cite

Renuka Munshi, Samidha Joshi, T Narendra, SPS Bhandari. Insulin sensitizing potential of fractions isolated from X. molluccensis and X. granatum. ijp [Internet]. 2015 Dec. 31 [cited 2024 May 19];7(4):441-8. Available from:



Original Research Articles