Physico-Chemical Characteristics and antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds and oil of Citrus aurantium Seeds from Northwest Algeria


  • Brixi Nassima Gormat Laboratory of Natural Products, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences of the Nature and the life, University Aboubek Belkaid, Tlemcen 13000, Algeria.
  • Meriem BELARBI Laboratory of Natural Products, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences of the Nature and the life, University Aboubek Belkaid, Tlemcen 13000, Algeria.
  • Zoubida MAMI
  • Fatima Zohra DJAZIRI Laboratory of Natural Products, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences of the Nature and the life, University Aboubek Belkaid, Tlemcen 13000, Algeria.


Citrus aurantium seed;, oil, phenolic compounds, antioxydant activity, Ferric reducing, β-carotene


Sour orange (Citrus aurantium) is a tree of the family of Rutaceae. It is cultivated today in many parts of the world; the fruit, leaves, twigs and flowers have numerous applications in food and perfumery. Citrus aurantium used in this study originate from Tlemcen in North East of Algeria. Our study focused firstly on the physicochemical analysis of seed oil of sour orange namely the determination of indices, fatty acids, vitamin E and polyphenols. Secondly we evaluated total phenols, flavonoids, condensed tannins of Citrus aurantium seeds and their antioxidant activity of using in vitro methods: ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and β-carotene bleaching test. The seeds oil contents is 38.21%, their fatty major acids were palmitic (26.85 %) and linoleic acid (38.29%). The physicochemical analysis of oil showed index values of density, acid value, ester value, saponification value and refractive index estimated respectively: 0926; 1.212, 190.39, 191.52, 1467. The quantitative estimation of Citrus aurantium seeds showed that content of polyphenol is 2.12 mg GA /g DW which the predominant part is represented by tannins (0.3 mg CE /g DW) followed by the flavonoids (0.076 mg CE /g DW). Our results demonstrate that all extracts have antioxidant capacity. Among these extracts, the ethyl acetate fraction of flavonoids showed the highest value of antioxidant activities for seed which might constitute an important source of natural antioxidants.


Mahmood MA. (2005). Hurdles in way of citrus export. Dawn. Cited 31 Oct 2005

Khan SRA. (2005). Citrus quality to meet global demand. Pakistan agriculture overview. overview/index.shtml. 25 Nov 2005

Onghia A.M. (ed.), Djelouah K. (ed.), Roistacher C.N. (ed.), Proceedings of the Mediterranean research network on certification of citrus (MNCC): 1998-2001

FAO (2012). Statistical Databases, (accessed 19.07.13).

. Anwar F, Naseer R, Bhanger MI, Ashraf S, Talpur FN and Aladedunye F A. Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Citrus Seeds and Seed Oils from Pakistan. Journal of American oil Chemical Society.2008; 85:321-330.

. Reda SY, Sauer EL, Batista AEC, Barana AC, Schnitzel E, Carneiro PIB. Characterization of rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck) and ‘‘Sicilian’’ lemon (Citrus limon) seed oils. An agro-industrial waste, Cienc Technol Aliment. 2005; 25: 672–676.

. Saidani M, Dhifi W, Marzouk B, Lipid evaluation of some Tunisian citrus seeds, J Food Lipids. 2004; 11: 242–250.

. Ajewole K, Adeyeye A. Characterization of Nigerian citrus seed oils. Food Chem. 1993; 47: 77–78.

. Barreca D, Bellocco E, Caristi C, Leuzzi U, Gattuso G. Elucidation ofthe flavonoid and furocoumarin composition and radical-scavenging activityof green and ripe chinotto (Citrus myrtifolia Raf.) fruit tissues, leaves and seeds. Food Chemistry. 2011; 129: 1504–1512.

. Ramful D, Tarnus E, Aruoma OI, Bourdon E, Bahorun T. Polyphenol composition, vitamin C content and antioxidant capacity of Mauritian citrus fruit pulps. Food Research International. 2011; 44: 2088–2099.

. Barros HRM, Ferreira TAPC, Genovese MI. Antioxidant capacity and mineral content of pulp and peel from commercial cultivars of citrus from Brazil. Food Chemistry. 2012; 134: 1892–1898.

. Kim JW, Lee BC, Lee JH, Nam KC, Lee SC. Effect of electron-beam irradiation on the antioxidant activity of extracts from Citrus unshiu pomaces. Radiat Phys. Chem. 2008; 77: 87–91.

. Hayat K, Zhang X, Chen H, Xia S, Jia C, Zhong F. Liberation and separation of phenolic compounds from citrus mandarin peels by microwave heating and its effect on antioxidant activity. Sep. Purif. Technol. 2010; 73: 371–376.

. Lagha-Benamrouche S, K. Madani, Phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of orange varieties (Citrus sinensis L. and Citrus aurantium L.) cultivated in Algeria: Peels and leaves, Industrial Crops and Products. 2013; 50: 723– 730.

. Bazzano LA, He J, Ogden LG, Loria CM, Vupputuri S, Myers L et al. Fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of cardiovascular disease in US adults: The first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2002; 76: 93–99.

. Brighenti F, Valtuen AS, Pellegrini N, Ardigo D, Del Rio D, Salvatore S et al. Total antioxidant capacity of the diet is inversely and independently related to plasma concentrations of highsensitive C-reactive protein in adult Italian subjects. British Journal of Nutrition. 2005 93(5) : 619–625.

. Pitsavos C, Panagiotakos DB, Tzima N, Chrysohoou C, Economou M, Zampelas A, et al. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with total antioxidant capacity in healthy adults: The ATTICA study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2005; 82(3): 694–699.

. Trichopoulou A, Costacou T, Bamia C, Trichopoulos D. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and survival in a Greek population. New England Journal of Medicine. 2003; 348: 2599–2608.

. Popovici C, Saykova I, Tylkowski B. Evaluation de l’activité antioxydant des composés phénoliques par la réactivité avec le radical libre DPPH. Revue de Génie Industriel. 2009 ; 4 : 25-39.

ISO 659. Graines oléagineuses – détermination de la teneur en huile. International

Organisation for Standardization (ISO). Geneva.1988

AFNOR, Association Française de Normalisation (AFNOR), 1978. NF T60-234.

. Bligh E G, Dyer W J. A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification, Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 1959; 37: 911–917.

Zaman Z, Fielden P, Frost PG. Simultaneous determination of vitamins A and E and carotenoids in plasma by reversed-phase HPLC in elderly and younger subjects. Clin Chem 1993; 39: 2229-2234.

. Pirisi FM, Cabras P, Cao F, Migliorini M, Muggelli M. Phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil, Reappraisal of the extraction, HPLC separation, and quantification procedures. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2000; 48: 1191–1196.

. Bonoli M, Montanucci M, Gallina Toschi T, Lercker G. Fast separation and determination of tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol and other phenolic compounds in extra-virgin olive oil by capillary zone electrophoresis with ultraviolet-diode array detection. Journal of Chromatography A. 2003;1011: 163–172.

.Yu Z, Dahlgren RA. Evaluation of methods for measuring polyphenols in copper foliage. J.Chem.Ecol. 2005; 26: 2119-2140.

. Dauguet JC, Foucher JP. Plantes médicinales et phytothérapie. 1982 ; 16 (3): 185-191.

. Bruneton J, Pharmacognosie, phytochimie, plantes médicinales, 3ème éd. Lavoisier, Paris, 1999. 1120 p.

. Singleton VL, Rossi JA. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic phosphotungstic acid reagents. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture. 1965; 16: 144 – 158.

. Zhishen J, Mengcheng T, Jianming W. Research on antioxidant activity of flavonoids from natural materials. Food Chemistry. 1999; 64: 555 – 559.

. Julkunen-Titto R. Phenolic constituents in the leaves of northern willows: methods for the analysis of certain phenolics. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1985; 33: 213-217.

. Oyaizu M. Studies on products of the browning reaction. Antioxidative activities of browning reaction products prepared from glucosamine. Japanese Journal of Nutrition. 1986; 44: 307–315.

. Wang H, Gao XD, Zhou GC, Cai L, Yao WB. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of aqueous extract from Choerospondias axillaris fruit, Food Chemistry. 2008; 106: 888 – 895.

. Koleva II, Van Beek TA, Linssen Jph , De Groot A, Evstatieva LN. Screening of plant extracts for antioxidant activity : a comparative study on three testing methods. Phytochem Anal. 2001;13: 8-17.

El-Adawy TA, Rehman EH, El-Bedawy AA, Gafar AM Properties of some citrus seeds, Part 3. Evaluation as a new source of potential oil, Nahrung. 1999; 43: 385–391.

. Amran W, Shahid M, Muhammad S, Tayaba A. Fatty acid composition of neutral lipid: Classes of Citrus seed oil. Journal of Saudi Chemical Society. 2009; 13: 269– 272.

. Akpata MI, Akubor PI. Chemical composition and selected functional properties of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) seed flour. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 1999;54: 353–362.

. Habib MA, Hammam MA, Sakr AA, Ashoush YA. Chemical evaluation of Egyptian citrus seeds as potential sources of vegetable oils. J Am Oil Chem Soc. 1986; 3:1192–1197.

. Rossell JB. Vegetable oil and fats. In: Rossell JB, Pritchard JLR (eds) Analysis of oilseeds, fats and fatty foods. Elsevier Applied Sciences, New York. 1991; 261–319.

. Cuvelier ME, Richard H, Berst C. Comparison of the antioxidative activity of some acid-phenols: structure–activity relationship. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 1992; 56: 324–325.

. Zheng W, Wang SY. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in selected herbs. J.Argic.Food Chem. 2001; 49: 5165-5170.

. Yusof S, Mohd Ghazali H, Swee King G. Naringin content in local citrus fruits. Food Chemistry. 1990; 37: 113–121.

. Moulehi I, Bourgou B, Ourghemmi I, Tounsi MS. Variety and ripening impact on phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of mandarin (Citrus reticulate Blanco) and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.) seeds extracts. Industrial Crops and Products. 2012; 39: 74– 80

. Wettasinghe M, Shahidi F, Amarowicz R. Identification and quantification of low molecular weight phenolic antioxidants in seeds of evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.). J. Agric. Food Chem. 2002; 50: 1267–1271.

. Braca A, Politi M, Sanogo R, Sanou H, Morelli I, Pizza C, De Tommasi N. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds from wild and cultivated Sclerocarya birrea (Anacardiaceae) leaves. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2003; 51: 6689– 95.

. Araújo TAS, Alencar NL, Amorim ELC, Albuquerque UP.A new approach to study medicinal plants with tannins and flavonoids contents from the local knowledge. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2008; 120: 72–80.

. Tang W, Eisenbrand GF, Chinese Drugs of Plant Origin. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.1992; 337–349.

. Amaral JS, Valentao P, Andrade PB, Martins RC, Seabra RM. Phenolic composition of hazelnut leaves: influence of cultivar, geographical origin and ripening stage. Sci. Hortic.2010; 126; 306–313.

.Moure A, Franco D , Sineiro J , Domínguez H, Núñez MJ, Lema JM. Evaluation of extracts from Gevuina avellana hulls as antioxidants. J Agric Food Chem. 2000; 48: 3890-7.

. Maisuthisakul P, Suttajit M, Pongsawatmanit R. Assessment of phenolic content and free radical-scavenging capacity of some Thai indigenous plants. Food Chem. 2007; 100: 1409–1418.

. Kwee EM, Niemeyer ED. Variations in phenolic composition and antioxidant properties among 15 basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cultivars, Food Chem. 2011; 128; 1044–1050.

. Chung YC, Chang CT, Chao WW, Lin CF, Chou ST. Antioxidative activity and safety of the 50% ethanolic extract from red bean fermented by Bacillus subtilis IMR-NK1. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2002; 50: 2454 – 2458.

. Gülçin E, Kirecci E, Akkemik E, Topal F, Hisar O. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of an aquatic plant: Duckweed (Lemna minor L.). Turk. J. Biol. 2010; 34: 175 – 188.

. Negro C, Tommasi L, Miceli A. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity from red grape marc extracts. Bioresource Technology. 2003; 87: 41–44.

. Luo XD, Basile MJ, Kennelly EJ, Polyphenolic antioxidants from the fruits of Chrysophyllum cainito L. (star apple). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2002; 50: 1379–1382.

. Bourgou S, Ksouri R, Bellila A, Skandrani I, Falleh H, Marzouk B. Phenolic composition and biological activities of Tunisian Nigella sativa L. shoots and roots. Comptes Rendus Biologies. 2008; 331: 48–55.

. Gordon MH. The mechanism of antioxidant action in-vitro. Food antioxidants. In B. J. F. Hudson (Ed.). Elsevier Applied Science, London, 1990, pp. 1–18.

. Atolani O, Omere J, Otuechere CA, Adewuyi A. Antioxidant and cytotoxicity effects of seed oils from edible fruits. Journal of Acute Disease. 2012; 130-134




How to Cite

Brixi Nassima Gormat, Meriem BELARBI, Zoubida MAMI, Fatima Zohra DJAZIRI. Physico-Chemical Characteristics and antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds and oil of Citrus aurantium Seeds from Northwest Algeria. ijp [Internet]. 2015 Dec. 31 [cited 2024 Jun. 16];7(4):370-8. Available from:



Original Research Articles